Feb 12, 2014
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(Roxb.) W. & A.

Family ► Combretaceae.

Habitat ► Throughout the greater part of India, also grown as an avenue tree.

English ► Arjun Terminalia.

Ayurvedic ► Arjuna, Dhananjaya, Kaakubha, Kakubha, Aartagala, Indravriksha, Paartha, Virataru, Viravriksha.

Unani ► Arjun

Siddha ► Marudam.

Action ► Bark—used as a cardiopro- tective and cardiotonic in angina and poor coronary circulation; as a diuretic in cirrhosis of liver and for symptomatic relief in hypertension; externally in skin diseases, herpes and leukoderma. Powdered bark is prescribed with milk in fractures and contusions with excessive ec- chymosis, also in urinary discharges and strangury. Fruit—deobstruent.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the powder of the stembark in emaciation, chest diseases, cardiac disorders, lipid imbalances and polyuria.

The bark extract contains acids (ar- junolic acid, terminic acid), glyco- sides (arjunetin, arjunosides I-IV), and strong antioxidants—flavones, tannins, oligomeric proanthocyani- dins.

The bark extract (500 mg every 8 h) given to (58 male) patients with stable angina with provocable ischemia on treadmill exercise, led to improvement in clinical and treadmill exercise parameters as compared to placebo therapy.

These benefits were similar to those observed with isosorbide mononitrate (40 mg/day). (Indian Heart J. 2002, 54(4), 441.)

Arjunolic acid exhibited significant cardiac protection in isoproterenol- induced myocardial necrosis in rats.

T (Mol Cell Biochem, 2001, 224 (1-2), 135-42.) A study demonstrated that the alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna bark augmented endogenous antioxi- dant compounds of the rat heart and prevented from isoproterenol-induced myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. (Life Sci. 2003, 73 (21), 27272739.) Cardiac lipid peroxidation in male Wistar rats was reduced by 38.8% ± 2.6% at a dose of 90 mg/kg, in a study based on aqueous freeze-dried extract ofthebark. (PhytotherRes. 2001,15(6), 510-23.)

Oral administration of bark powder (400 mg/kg body weight) for 10 days produced significant increase in circulating histamine, a little increase in 5-HT, catecholamines and HDL cholesterol, and decrease in total lipid, triglycerides and total cholesterol in normal rats.

Casuarinin, a hydrolyzable tannin, isolated from the bark, exhibited antiherpes virus activity by inhibiting viral attachment and penetration. 50% ethanolic extract of the bark exhibited significant increase in the tensile of the incision wounds.

Dosage ► Stembark—3-6 g powder. (API, Vol. II.)

Article Categories:
Indian Medicinal Plants

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