Airy Shaw.Synonym ► S. lurida Dunal.Family ► Solanaceae.Habitat ► The Himalayas from Kumaon to Sikkim, up to 3,900 m.English ► Scopolia.Action ► Used like belladonna.Dried leaves contain 0.32% of alkaloids comprising hyoscyamine, hima- line, atropine and scopolamine.Ripe seeds contain a small amount of atropine but no hyoscyamine. Extracts of leaves, stalks and seeds showed presence of atropine, scopolamine, cusco- hygrine, hellaradine, tropine, scopine. The alkaloid himaline exhibits atropine type activity. Roots (total alkaloid content 1.9-2.8%), in addition, contain hyoscyamine and himaline. The alkaloid content of the root is reported to be 4.64 times more than that of the leaves of Atropa belladonna.Flavonoids occurring in the leaves and roots are chlorogenic acid, scopo- letin, and scopoline; the leaves, in addition, contain rutin and caffeic acid.A related species, S. carniolica Jacquin, (rhizome), has been approved by German Commission E, for use in spasm of gastrointestinal tract, bile ducts and urinary tract.The rhizome ofS. carniolica (Central and Eastern Europe) gave tropane alkaloids, including hyoscine and hyoscy- amine with cuscohygrine, tropine and pseudotropine.Leaf extract of Indian species (S. anomala) is found to be more active than belladonna infusions.
Article Categories:Indian Medicinal Plants