Mill.Synonym ► M. domestica Borkh. M. sylvestris Hort. non-Mill. Pyrus malus Linn. in part.Family ► Rosaceae.Habitat ► Native to Europe and West Asia; now cultivated in Himachal Pradesh., Kashmir, Kulu, Kumaon, Assam and in the Nilgiris.English ► Cultivated Apple.Ayurvedic ► Sinchitikaa.Folk ► Seb, Sev.Action ► Bark—anthelmintic, refrigerant, hypnotic, given in intermittent, remittent and bilious fevers. Leaves—inhibit the growth of a number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.The fruit contains malic (90-95% of the total acids), citric, lactic and succinic acids; (unripe fruit contains quinic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, lactic acid); caffeic acid derivatives, pectins, minerals and vitamins.Edible portion of fresh apple contains thiamine 0.12, riboflavin 0.03, niacin 0.2 and ascorbic acid 2 mg/100 g. The ascorbic acid content varies widely and values up to 40 mg/100 g. Sugars constitute about 80% of the total carbohydrates of ripe fruits—fructose (60), glucose (25) and sucrose (15%). The pectin content of the edible portion varies from 0.14 to 0.96% (as calcium pectate). The uronic acid content of apple pectin varies from 0.5 to 15%.The astringent principles of apple include tannins, tannin derivatives and colouring materials (flavones). The browning of apple slices on exposure to air is due to enzymic oxidation of tannin compounds.Fresh juice contains 0.20-0.80 malic acid, 11.6 total sugars and 0.02100.080% tannin.The seeds contain cyanogenic gly- coside, amygdalin (0.62-1.38%, HCN equivalent, 0.037-00.087%).
Article Categories:Indian Medicinal Plants