Mental arousal that the individual may ﬁnd enjoyable or unpleasant. The three components are subjective, physiological and behavioural. The instinctive fear and ﬂee response in animals comprises physiological reaction – raised heart rate, pallor and sweating – to an unpleasant event or stimulus. The loving relationship between mother and child is another wellrecognised emotional event. If this emotional bond is absent or inadequate, the child may suﬀer emotional deprivation, which can be the trigger for behavioural problems ranging from attention-craving to aggression. Emotional problems are common in human society, covering a wide spectrum of psychological disturbances. Upbringing, relationships or psychiatric illnesses such as anxiety and DEPRESSION may all contribute to the development of emotional problems (see MENTAL ILLNESS).
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