Feb 12, 2014
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ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM

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Maton.

Family ► Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat ► Throughout warmer parts of India.

Ayurvedic ► Mayura-shikhaa, Gojihvaa. (Actinopteris dichotoma Bedd. and Celosia cristata Linn. are also used as Mayura-shikhaa. Anchusa strigosa Lebill., and other Boraginaecae sp. are used as Gojihvaa.)

Siddha/Tamil ► Yaanaichhuvadi.

Folk ► Mayurjuti, Maaraajuti.

Action ► Plant—astringent, cardiac tonic, diuretic, mucilaginous, emmolient (used in dysuria, diarrhoea, dysentery. Leaves—

Family ► Zingiberaceae.

Habitat ► Cultivated either as pure plantation crop, or as subsidiary to coffee and arecanut in hilly forests regions of Western Ghats in Karnataka and Kerala, and in parts of Madurai, the Nilgiris and Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu.

English ► Lesser Cardamom.

Ayurvedic ► Elaa, Sukshmailaa, Kshudrailaa, Bhrngaparnikaa, Tutthaa, Draavidi, Prithvikaa, Triputaa, Truti, Upkunchikaa.

Unani ► Heel Khurd.

Siddha/Tamil ► Yelakkai, Ilam.

Action ► Carminative antiemetic, stomachic, orexigenic, anti-gripe, antiasthmatic, bechic, Oil— antispasmodic, antiseptic. Used for flatulence, loss of appetite, colic, bronchitis, asthma. Paste used as balm for headache, husk for rheumatism.

Key application ► In dyspepsia; also as cholagogue. (German Commission E.)

The seeds yield an essential oil (611% dry basis). The major constituents are, 1,8-cineole and alpha-terpinylace- tate, with limonene, alpha-terpineol, sabinene and linalool. The seeds contain palmitic and oleic as dominant fatty acids, besides linoleic and linolenic acids, along with alpha-tocopherol, desmosterol and campesterol.

The extracts of cardamom cause a significant decrease in gastric secretion after 3 h of treatment. The effect of methanol extract is primarily observed as decreased pepsin output.

Terpineol and acetylterpineol, the active principles of cardamom seeds, showed greater penetration enhancing capacities than Azone which was used as a comparative penetration enhancer for the diffusion of Pred- nisolone through mouse skin in vitro.

Volatile components exhibit antimicrobial activity. The oil inhibits afla- toxin synthesis.

The cardamom seed can trigger gallstone colic (spasmodic pain) and is not recommended for self-medication in patients with gallstone. (German Commission E, PDR, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Dosage ► Seed of dried fruit—1-2 g powder. (API Vol I.)

Article Categories:
Indian Medicinal Plants

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