The academic title granted to someone who has a university degree higher than a master’s degree. Some UK universities grant a medical doctorate (MD) for a research thesis of approved standard. In Britain, ‘doctor’ is also the title given to a qualiﬁed medical practitioner registered by the General Medical Council, usually after he or she has obtained a bachelor’s degree or a diploma in medicine and surgery. In the UK a doctor has to spend a year of supervised practice in a recognised hospital post before he or she is registered as fully qualiﬁed, but specialists have to obtain further training and higher qualiﬁcations before they can be accredited and therefore practise as specialists in the NHS. General practitioners must complete a three-year vocational training course before practising as an independent GP. In Britain, surgical specialists are customarily addressed as ‘Mr’. Other countries have diﬀerent regulations.
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