This stands for cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors – a class of drugs used in treating ARTHRITIS – of which the most well-used is celecoxib. Their main claim is that they are less likely to cause gastrointestinal disturbance than NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDS). In 2001, the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommended that they should not be used routinely in rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis but only in patients with a history of peptic ulcer or gastrointestinal bleeding. They should also be considered in persons over the age of 65 taking other drugs which could cause gastrointestinal bleeding, those who are very debilitated, and those who are taking maximum doses of NSAIDs. In 2005, rofecoxib was withdrawn because of concerns about cardiac side-eﬀects.
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