A reduction or stoppage in the ﬂow of BILE into the intestine caused either by a blockage such as a stone in the BILE DUCT or by liver disease disturbing the production of bile. The ﬁrst type is called extrahepatic biliary obstruction and the second, intrahepatic cholestasis. The patient develops jaundice and itching and passes dark urine and pale faeces. Cholestasis may occasionally occur during pregnancy.
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